Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the most frequent type of publication malpractice when the work of other researchers is included in one’s own study without the researcher’s prior approval. Even if the contributor does not duly cite the researcher and does not acknowledge him or her in the work, a type of plagiarism exists. In the Oxford Dictionary, the plagiarism is defined as copying and using the ideas and work of another’s person as one’s own scientific contribution. Plagiarism can be in the form of data, phrases and paragraphs and basic ideas and hypotheses. The levels of plagiarism depend on the contents and varies accordingly, such as
- How much quantitative work has been copied, either a few lines or paragraphs or a complete section.
- How much in quality is copied, either the main concept or results or mathematical modeling of the published work.
Self-Plagiarism: In self-plagiarism, an already published work of an author has been reused by himself as new research work. The degree of self-plagiarism varies by the quantity of reused work as taking a few paragraphs for writing or using the previous experimental setup and results. The reader is mis-leaded by the author by presenting his old work as new research and readers should be informed that the existing work is an extension of the previous work and it is not reuse of the already published study.
A few types of self-plagiarism that happen frequently include
- A previous dataset and experiments are used without informing the reader
- In the newly submitted work, previous work is included but it is not cited.